Thus have I heard: At one time the Buddha dwelt in Rajagriha, on Vulture Peak,
with a large assembly of Bhikkhus and with thirty-two thousand Bodhisattvas,
with Manjushri the Dharma-Prince at the head of the assembly.
At that time, in the great city of Rajagriha there was a prince, the
heir-apparent, named Ajatashatru. He
listened to the wicked counsel of Devadatta and other friends and forcibly
arrested Bimbisara his father, the king, and shut him up by himself in a room
with seven walls, proclaiming to all the courtiers that no one should approach
(the king). The chief consort of
the king, Vaidehi by name, was true and faithful to her lord, the king. She
supported him in this way: having purified herself by bathing and washing, she
anointed her body with honey and ghee mixed with corn-flour, and she concealed
the juice of grapes in the various garlands she wore in order to give him food
without being noticed by the warder. As she stole in and made an offering to
him, he was able to eat the flour and to drink the juice of grapes.
Then he called for water and rinsed his mouth. That done, the king
stretched forth his folded hands towards Vulture Peak and duly and respectfully
made obeisance to the World-Honored One, who at that time was living there. And
he uttered the following prayer: 'Maha Maudgalyayana is my friend and relative;
let him, I pray, feel compassion towards me, and come and communicate to me the
eight prohibitive precepts of the Buddha.' On this, Maha Maudgalyayana at once
appeared before the king, coming with a speed equal to the flight of a falcon or
an eagle, and communicated to him the eight precepts.
after day he visited the king. The
World-Honored One sent also his worthy disciple Purna to preach the Dharma to
the king. Thus a period of three weeks passed by. The king showed in his
expression that he was happy and contented when he had an opportunity of hearing
the Dharma as well as of enjoying the honey and flour.
At that time, Ajatashatru asked the warder of the gate whether his father was
yet alive. On this, the warder answered him : 'Exalted king, the chief consort
of your father brought food and presented it to him by anointing her body with
honey and flour and filling her garlands with the juice of grapes, and the
Shramanas, Maha Maudgalyayana and Purna, approached the king through the sky in
order to preach the Dharma to him. It is impossible, king, to prevent them
the prince heard this answer his indignation arose against his mother: 'My
mother,' he cried, 'is indeed a rebel, for she was found in the company of that
rebel. Wicked people are those Shramanas, and it is their art of spells causing
illusion and delusion that delayed the death of that wicked king for so many
days.' Instantly he brandished his sharp sword, intending to slay his mother. At
that moment, there intervened a minister named Chandraprabha, who was possessed
of great wisdom and intelligence, and Jiva (a famous physician).
They saluted the prince and remonstrated with him, saying: 'We,
ministers, Great king, heard that since the beginning of the kalpas there had
been several wicked kings, even to the number of eighteen thousand, who killed
their own fathers, coveting the throne of their respective kingdoms, as
mentioned in the Sutra of the discourse of the Veda.
Yet never have we heard of a man killing his mother, though he be void of
virtue. Now, if you, king, should dare to commit such a deadly sin, you would
bring a stain upon the blood of the Kshatriyas, the kingly race.
We cannot even bear to hear of it. You
are indeed a Chandala, the lowest race; we will not stay here with you.'
this, the two great ministers withdrew stepping backward, each with his hand
placed on his sword. Ajatashatru
was then frightened and greatly afraid of them, and asked Jiva, 'Will you not be
my friend?' In reply Jiva said to him, 'Do not then, O great king, by any means
think of injuring your mother.' On hearing this, the prince repented and sought
for mercy, and at once laid down his sword and did his mother no harm.
He finally ordered the officers of the inner chambers to put the queen in
a hidden palace and not to allow her to come out again.
When Vaidehi was thus locked up in confinement she became afflicted by sorrow
and distress. She began to do
homage to Buddha from afar, looking towards the Vulture Peak. She uttered the following words: 'Tathágata!
World-Honored One! In former times you have constantly sent Ánanda to me for
enquiry and consolation. I am now
in sorrow and grief. You, World-Honored One, are majestic and exalted; in no way
shall I be able to see thee. Will thou, I pray you, command Maha Maudgalyayana and your honored disciple,
Ánanda, to come and have an interview with me?’
After this speech, she grieved and wept, shedding tears like a shower of
rain. Before she raised her head
from doing homage to the distant Buddha, the World-Honored One knew what Vaidehi
was wishing in her mind, though he was on the Vulture Peak. Therefore, he
instantly ordered Maha Maudgalyayana and Ánanda to go to her through the sky.
Buddha himself disappeared from that mountain and appeared in the royal
the queen raised her head as she finished homage to Buddha, she saw before her
the World-Honored Buddha Shakyamuni, whose body was purple gold in color,
sitting on a lotus-flower which consists of a hundred jewels, with Maha Maudgalyayana
attending on his left, and with Ánanda on his right.
Sakra (Indra), Brahman, and other gods that protect the world were seen
in the midst of the sky, everywhere showering heavenly flowers with which they
made offerings to Buddha in their obeisance.
Vaidehi, at the sight of Buddha the World-Honored One, took off her
garlands and prostrated herself on the ground, crying, sobbing, and speaking to
Buddha: 'World-Honored One! What
former sin of mine has produced such a wicked son?
And again, Exalted One, from what cause and circumstances have you such
an affinity (by blood and religion) with Devadatta (Buddha's wicked cousin and
once his disciple)?'
'My only prayer,' she continued, 'is this: World-Honored One, may you preach to
me in detail of all the places where there is no sorrow or trouble, and where I
ought to go to be born anew. I am not satisfied with this world of depravities,
with Jambudvipa, which is full of hells, full of hungry spirits, and of the
brute creatures. In this world of
depravities, there are many assemblies of the wicked. May I not hear, I pray, the voice of the wicked in the future
and may I not see any wicked person.
I throw my limbs down to the ground before you, and seek for your mercy by
confessing my sins. I pray for this only that the Sun-like Buddha may instruct
me how to meditate on a world wherein all actions are pure.’
At that moment, the World-Honored One flashed forth a golden ray from
between his eyebrows. It extended to all the innumerable worlds of the ten
quarters. On its return the ray
rested on the top of the Buddha's head and transformed itself into a golden
pillar just like Mount Sumeru, wherein the pure and admirable countries of the
Buddhas in the ten quarters appeared simultaneously illuminated.
was a country consisting of seven jewels, another was a country all full of
lotus-flowers; one was like the palace of Mahesvara Deva (god Siva), another was
like a mirror of crystal, with the countries in the ten quarters reflected
therein. There were innumerable
countries like these, resplendent, gorgeous, and delightful to look upon. All
were meant for Vaidehi to see (and choose from).
Vaidehi again spoke to Buddha: 'World-Honored One, although all other Buddha
countries are pure and radiant with light, I should, nevertheless, wish myself
to be born in the realm of Buddha Amitayus, in the world of Highest Happiness,
Sukhavati. Now I simply pray you, World-Honored One, to teach me how to
concentrate my thought so as to obtain a right vision of that country.'
Thereupon the World-Honored One gently smiled upon her, and rays of five colors
issued forth out of his mouth, each ray shining as far as the head of king
that moment, the mental vision of that exalted king was perfectly clear though
he was shut up in lonely retirement, and he could see the World-Honored One from
afar. As he paid homage with his head and face, he naturally increased and
advanced in wisdom, whereby he attained to the fruition of an Anagamin, the
third of the four grades to Nirvana.
Then the World-Honored One said: 'Now do you not know, Vaidehi, that Buddha
Amitayus is not very far from here? You should apply your mind entirely to close
meditation upon those who have already perfected the pure actions necessary for
that Buddha country.
now proceed to fully expound them for you in many parables, and thereby afford
all ordinary persons of the future who wish to cultivate these pure actions an
opportunity of being born in the Land of Highest Happiness (Sukhavati) in the
western quarter. Those who wish to
be born in that country of Buddha have to cultivate threefold goodness. First,
they should act filially towards their parents and support them; serve and
respect their teachers and elders; be of compassionate mind, abstain from doing
any injury, and cultivate the ten virtuous actions.” Second, they should take and observe the vow of seeking
refuge with the Three jewels, fulfill all moral precepts, and not lower their
dignity or neglect any ceremonial observance. Third, they should give their
whole mind to the attainment of perfect wisdom, deeply believe in the principle
of cause and effect, study and recite the Mahayana doctrine, and persuade and
encourage others who pursue the same course as themselves.
three groups as enumerated are called the pure actions leading to the Buddha
Buddha continued, 'To clarify if do you not understand now: These three classes
of actions are the effective cause of the pure actions taught by all the Buddhas
of the past, present, and future.'
The Buddha then addressed Ánanda as well as Vaidehi: 'Listen carefully, listen
carefully! Ponder carefully on what you hear! I, Tathágata, now declare the pure
actions needful for Birth in that Buddha country, for the sake of all beings
hereafter that are subject to the misery inflicted by the enemy of the passions.
Well done, Vaidehi! Appropriate
are the questions, which you have asked! Ánanda,
be sure to remember these words of mine, the Buddha, and repeat them openly to
many assemblies. I, Tathágata, now teach Vaidehi and also all beings hereafter
in order that they may meditate on the World of Highest Happiness, Sukhavati, in
the western quarter.
is by the power of Buddha only that one can see that pure land of Buddha as
clear as one sees the image of one's face reflected in the transparent mirror
held up before one.
one sees the state of happiness of that country in its highest excellence, one
greatly rejoices in one's heart and immediately attains a spirit of resignation
prepared to endure whatever consequences may yet arise.' Buddha, turning again
to Vaidehi, said: 'You are but an ordinary person; the quality of your mind is
weak and confused.
have not as yet obtained the divine eye and cannot perceive what is at a
distance. All the Buddhas, Tathágatas
have various means at their disposal and can therefore afford you an
opportunity of seeing that Buddha country.’
Then Vaidehi rejoined: 'World-Honored One, people such as I can now see
that land by the power of Buddha, but how shall all those beings who are to come
after Buddha's Nirvana, and who, as being depraved and devoid of good qualities,
will be harassed by the five worldly sufferings - how shall they see the World
of Highest Happiness of the Buddha Amitayus?'
Buddha then replied: 'You and all other beings besides ought to make it your
only aim, with concentrated thought, to get a perception of the western quarter.
You will ask how that perception is to be formed. I will explain it now.
All beings, if not blind from birth, are uniformly possessed of sight,
and they all see the setting sun. You
should sit down properly, looking in the western direction, and prepare your
thought for a close meditation on the sun; cause your mind to be firmly fixed on
it so as to have an unwavering perception by the exclusive application of your
mind, and gaze upon it in particular when it is about to set and looks like a
you have thus seen the sun, let that image remain clear and fixed, whether your
eyes be shut or open;-such is the perception of the sun, which is the First
'Next you should form the perception of water; gaze on the water clear and pure,
and let (this image) also remain clear and fixed (afterwards); never allow your
thought to be scattered and lost.
you have thus seen the water you should form the perception of ice.
As you see the ice shining and transparent, you should imagine the
appearance of lapis lazuli.
that has been done, you will see the ground consisting of lapis lazuli,
transparent and shining both within and without. Beneath this ground of lapis
lazuli there will be seen a golden banner with the seven jewels, diamonds and
the rest, supporting the ground. It extends to the eight points of the compass,
and thus the eight corners (of the ground) are perfectly filled up.
Every side of the eight quarters consists of a hundred jewels, every
jewel has a thousand rays, and every ray has eighty-four thousand colors which,
when reflected in the ground of lapis lazuli, look like a thousand million suns,
and. it is difficult to see them all one by one. Over the surface of that ground
of lapis lazuli there are stretched golden ropes intertwined crosswise;
divisions are made by means of strings of seven jewels with every part clear and
jewel has rays of five hundred colors which look like flowers or like the moon
and stars. Lodged high up in the open sky these rays form a tower of rays, whose
stories and galleries are ten millions in number and built of a hundred jewels.
Both sides of the tower have each a hundred million flowery banners furnished
and decked with numberless musical instruments.
Eight kinds of cool breezes proceed from the brilliant rays. When those
musical instruments are played, they emit the sounds "suffering,"
"non-existence," "impermanence," and "non-self ";
such is the perception of the water, which is the Second Meditation.
'When this perception has been formed, you should meditate on its (constituents)
one by one and make (the images) as clear as possible, so that they may never be
scattered and lost, whether your eyes be shut or open.
Except only during the time of your sleep, you should always keep this in
your mind. One who has reached this
(stage of) perception is said to have dimly seen the Land of Highest Happiness (Sukhavati).'
who has obtained the Samádhi of supernatural calm is able to see the land of
that Buddha country clearly and distinctly: this state is too much to be
explained fully; such is the perception of the land, and it is the Third
should remember, Ánanda, the Buddha words of mine, and repeat this law for
attaining to the perception of the land of the Buddha country for the sake of
the great mass of the people hereafter who may wish to be delivered from their
sufferings. If any one meditates on
the land of that Buddha country, his sins which bind him to births and deaths
during eighty million kalpas shall be expiated; after the abandonment of his
present body, he will assuredly be born in the pure land in the following life.
The practice of this kind of meditation is called the "right meditation.”
If it is of any other kind it is called "heretical
Buddha then spoke to Ánanda and Vaidehi: 'When the perception of the land (of
that Buddha country) has been gained, you should next meditate on the
jewel-trees (of that country). In meditating on the jewel-trees, you should take
each by itself and form a perception of the seven rows of trees; every tree is
eight hundred yojanas high, and all the jewel-trees have flowers and leaves
consisting of seven jewels all perfect. All
flowers and leaves have colors like the colors of various jewels -from the color
of lapis lazuli there issues a golden ray; from the color of crystal, a saffron
ray; from the color of agate, a diamond ray; from the color of diamond, a ray of
blue pearls. Corals, amber, and all other gems are used as ornaments for
illumination; nets of excellent pearls are spread over the trees, each tree is
covered by seven sets of nets, and between one set and another there are five
hundred million palaces built of excellent flowers, resembling the palace of the
Lord Brahman; all heavenly children live there, quite naturally; every child has
a garland consisting of five hundred million precious gems like those that are
fastened on Sakra's (Indra's) head, the rays of which shine over a hundred
yojanas, just as if a hundred million suns and moons were united together; it is
difficult to explain them in detail. That (garland) is the most excellent among
all, as it is the commixture of all sorts of jewels. Rows of these jewel-trees
touch one another; the leaves of the trees also join one another.
the dense foliage there blossom various beautiful flowers, upon which are
miraculously found fruits of seven jewels. The leaves of the trees are all
exactly equal in length and in breadth, measuring twenty-five yojanas each way;
every leaf has a thousand colors and a hundred different pictures on it, just
like a heavenly garland. There are
many excellent flowers, which have the color of Jambunada gold and an appearance
of fire-wheels in motion, turning between the leaves in a graceful fashion.
All the fruits are produced just (as easily) as if they flowed out from
the pitcher of the God Sakra. There
is a magnificent ray, which transforms itself into numberless jeweled canopies
with banners and flags. Within these jeweled canopies the works of all the
Buddhas of the Great Chiliocosm appear illuminated; the Buddha countries of the
ten quarters also are manifested therein. When
you have seen these trees you should also meditate on them one by one in order. In meditating on the trees, trunks, branches, leaves,
flowers, and fruits, let them all be distinct and clear;- such is the perception
of the trees (of that Buddha country), and it is the Fourth Meditation.
'Next, you should perceive the water (of that country). The perception of the
water is as follows:
the Land of Highest Happiness there are waters in eight lakes; the water in
every lake consists of seven jewels which are soft and yielding.
Deriving its source from the king of jewels that fulfills every wish, the
water is divided into fourteen streams; every stream has the color of seven
jewels; its channel is built of gold, the bed of which consists of the sand of
the midst of each lake there are sixty million lotus-flowers, made of seven
jewels; all the flowers are perfectly round and exactly equal (in
circumference), being twelve yojanas. The
water of jewels flows amidst the flowers and rises and falls by the stalks (of
the lotus); the sound of the streaming water is melodious and pleasing, and
propounds all the perfect virtues (Paramitas), "suffering,"
"non-existence," "impermanence," and "non-self;"
it proclaims also the praise of the signs of perfection, and minor marks of
excellence of all Buddhas. From the
king of jewels that fulfills every wish, stream forth the golden-colored rays
excessively beautiful, the radiance of which transforms itself into birds
possessing the colors of a hundred jewels, which sing out harmonious notes,
sweet and delicious, ever praising the remembrance of Buddha, the remembrance of
the Dharma, and the remembrance of the Sangha -- such is the perception of the
water of eight good qualities, and it is the Fifth Meditation.
'Each division of that (Buddha) country, which consists of several jewels, has
also jeweled stories and galleries to the number of five hundred million; within
each story and gallery there are innumerable Devas engaged in playing heavenly
music. There are some musical
instruments that are hung up in the open sky, like the jeweled banners of
heaven; they emit musical sounds without being struck, which, while resounding
variously, all propound the remembrance of Buddha, of the Dharma and of the
Sangha, Bhikkhus, and so forth. When
this perception is duly accomplished, one is said to have dimly seen the
jewel-trees, jewel-ground, and jewel-lakes of that World of Highest Happiness
(Sukhavati) -- such is the perception formed by meditating on the general
features of that Land, and it is the Sixth Meditation.
one has experienced this, one has expiated the greatest sinful deeds which would
otherwise lead one to Transmigration for numberless millions of kalpas; after
his death he will assuredly be born in that land.
'Listen carefully! listen carefully! Think over what you have heard!
I, Buddha, am about to explain in detail the law of delivering one's self
from trouble and torment. Commit
this to your memory in order to explain it in detail before a great assembly.'
While Buddha was uttering these words, Buddha Amitayus stood in the midst of the
sky with Bodhisattvas Mahasthama and Avalokiteshvara, attending on his right and
left respectively. There was such a
bright and dazzling radiance that no one could see clearly; the brilliance was a
hundred thousand times greater than that of gold (Jambunada).
Thereupon Vaidehi saw Buddha Amitayus and approached the World-Honored
One, and made obeisance to him, touching his feet, and spoke to him as follows:
'Exalted One! I am now able, by the power of Buddha, to see Buddha Amitayus
together with the two Bodhisattvas. But
how shall all the beings of the future meditate on Buddha Amitayus and the two
The Buddha answered: 'Those who wish to meditate on that Buddha ought first to
direct their thought as follows: form the perception of a lotus-flower on a
ground of seven jewels, each leaf of that lotus exhibits the colors of a hundred
jewels, and has eighty-four thousand veins, just like heavenly pictures; each
vein possesses eighty-four thousand rays, of which each can be clearly seen.
Every small leaf and flower is two hundred and fifty yojanas in length
and the same measurement in breadth. Each
lotus-flower possesses eighty-four thousand leaves, each leaf has the kingly
pearls to the number of a hundred million, as ornaments for illumination; each
pearl shoots out a thousand rays like bright canopies. The surface of the ground
is entirely covered by a mixture of seven jewels. There is a tower built of the
gems, which are like those that are fastened on Sakra's head. It is inlaid and
decked with eighty thousand diamonds, Kimsuka jewels, Brahma-mani and excellent
that tower there are miraculously found four posts with jeweled banners; each
banner looks like a hundred thousand million Sumeru mountains.
jeweled veil over these banners is like that of the celestial palace of Yama,
illuminated with five hundred million excellent jewels, each jewel has
eighty-four thousand rays, each ray has various golden colors to the number of
eighty-four thousand, each golden color covers the whole jeweled soil, it
changes and is transformed at various places, every now and then exhibiting
various appearances; now it becomes a diamond tower, now a pearl net, again
clouds of mixed flowers, freely changing its manifestation in the ten directions
it exhibits the state of Buddha -- such is the perception of the flowery throne,
and it is the Seventh Meditation.'
turning to Ánanda, said: 'These excellent flowers were created originally by the
power of the prayer of Bhikkhu, Dharmakara. All who wish to exercise the
remembrance of that Buddha ought first to form the perception of that flowery
throne. When engaged in it one ought not to perceive vaguely, but fix the mind
upon each detail separately. Leaf, jewel, ray, tower, and banner should be clear
and distinct, just as one sees the image of one's own face in a mirror.
When one has achieved this perception, the sins, which would produce
births and deaths during fifty thousand kalpas, are expiated, and he is one who
will most assuredly be born in the World of Highest Happiness.
'When you have perceived this, you should next perceive Buddha himself. Do you
ask how? Every Buddha Tathágata is
one whose spiritual body is the principle of nature (Darmadhatu-kaya), so that
he may enter into the mind of any beings. Consequently,
when you have perceived Buddha, it is indeed that mind of yours that possesses
those thirty-two signs of perfection and eighty minor marks of excellence, which
you see in a Buddha. In conclusion, it is your mind that becomes Buddha nay it is
your mind that is indeed Buddha. The ocean of true and universal knowledge of
all the Buddhas derives its source from one's own mind and thought.
Therefore you should apply your thought with an undivided attention to a
careful meditation on that Buddha Tathágata, Arhat, the Holy and Fully
Enlightened One. In forming the perception of that Buddha, you should first
perceive the image of that Buddha; whether, your eyes are open or shut, look at
an image like Jambunada gold in color, sitting on that flower throne mentioned
you have seen the seated figure your mental vision will become clear, and you
will be able to see clearly and distinctly the adornment of that Buddha country,
the jeweled ground, and so forth. In
seeing these things, let them be clear and fixed just as you see the palms of
your hands. When you have passed
through this experience, you should further form a perception of another great
lotus-flower which is on the left side of Buddha, and is exactly equal in every
way to the above-mentioned lotus-flower of Buddha. Still further, you should
form (a perception of) another lotus-flower, which is on the right side of
Buddha. Perceive that an image of Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara is sitting on the
left-hand flowery throne, shooting forth-golden rays exactly like those of
Buddha. Perceive then that an image
of Bodhisattva Mahasthama is sitting on .the right-hand flowery throne.
these perceptions are gained the images of Buddha and the Bodhisattvas will all
send forth brilliant rays, clearly lighting up all the jewel-trees with golden
color. Under every tree there are
also three lotus-flowers. On every
lotus-flower there is an image, either of Buddha or of a Bodhisattva; thus (the
images of the Bodhisattvas and of Buddha) are found everywhere in that country.
When this perception has been gained, the devotee should hear the
excellent Dharma preached by means of a stream of water, a brilliant ray of
light, several jewel-trees, ducks, geese, and swans.
Whether he be wrapped in meditation or whether he has ceased from it, he
should ever hear the excellent Dharma. What the devotee hears must be kept in
memory and not be lost, when he ceases from that meditation; and it should agree
with the Sutras, for if it does not agree with the Sutras, it is called an
illusory perception, whereas if it does agree, it is called the rough perception
of the World of Highest Happiness;-such is the perception of the images, and it
is the Eighth Meditation.
who has practiced this meditation is freed from the sins (which otherwise
involve him in) births and deaths for innumerable million kalpas, and during
this present life he obtains the Samádhi due to the remembrance of Buddha.
'Further, when this perception is gained, you should next proceed to meditate on
the bodily marks and the light of Buddha Amitayus.
should know, Ánanda, that the body of Buddha Amitayus is a hundred thousand
million times as bright as the color of the Jambunada gold of the heavenly abode
of Yama; the height of that Buddha is six hundred thousand nayutas of kotis of
yojanas innumerable as are the sands of the river Ganges.
white twist of hair between the eyebrows all turning to the right is just like
the five Sumeru mountains.
eyes of Buddha are like the water of the four great oceans; the blue and the
white are quite distinct.
the roots of hair of his body issue forth brilliant rays which are also like the
halo of that Buddha is like a hundred million Great Chiliocosms; in that halo
there are Buddhas miraculously created, to the number of a million nayutas of
kotis innumerable as the sands of the Ganges; each of these Buddhas has for
attendants a great assembly of numberless Bodhisattvas who are also miraculously
Amitayus has eighty-four thousand signs of perfection, each sign is possessed of
eighty-four minor marks of excellence, each mark has eighty-four thousand rays,
each ray extends so far as to shine over the worlds of the ten quarters, whereby
Buddha embraces and protects all the beings who think upon him and does not
exclude any one of them. His rays, signs, and so forth are difficult to be
explained in detail. But in simple meditation let the mind's eye dwell upon
you pass through this experience, you will at the same time see all the Buddhas
of the ten quarters. Since you see all the Buddhas it is called the Samádhi of
the remembrance of the Buddhas.
who have practiced this meditation are said to have contemplated the bodies of
all the Buddhas. Since they have
meditated on Buddha's body, they will also see Buddha's mind.
It is great compassion that is called Buddha's mind.
It is by his absolute compassion that he receives all beings.
who have practiced this meditation will, when they die, be born in the presence
of the Buddhas in another life, and obtain a spirit of resignation wherewith to
face all the consequences which shall hereafter arise.
those who have wisdom should direct their thought to the careful meditation upon
that Buddha Amitayus. Let those who
meditate on Buddha Amitayus begin with one single sign or mark -- let them first
meditate on the white twist of hair between the eyebrows as clearly as possible;
when they have done this, the eighty-four thousand signs and marks will
naturally appear before their eyes. Those
who see Amitayus will also see all the innumerable Buddhas of the ten quarters.
Since they have seen all the innumerable Buddhas, they will receive the
prophecy of their future destiny to become Buddha in the presence of all the
Buddhas -- Such is the perception gained by a complete meditation on all forms
and bodies of Buddha, and it is the Ninth Meditation.
'When you have seen Buddha Amitayus distinctly, you should then further meditate
upon Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara, whose height is eight hundred thousand nayutas
of yojanas; the color of his body is purple gold, his head has a turban at the
back of which there is a halo; the circumference of his face is a hundred
thousand yojanas. In that halo,
there are five hundred Buddhas miraculously transformed just like those of
Shakyamuni Buddha; each transformed Buddha is attended by five hundred
transformed Bodhisattvas who are also attended by numberless gods. Within the
circle of light emanating from his whole body appear illuminated the various
forms and marks of all beings that live in the five paths of existence.
the top of his head Is a heavenly crown of gems like those that are fastened (on
Indra's head), in which crown there is a transformed Buddha standing,
twenty-five yojanas high.
face of Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara In, like Jambunada gold in color.
soft hair between the eyebrows has all the colors of the seven jewels, from
which eighty-four kinds of rays flow out, each ray has innumerable transformed
Buddhas, each of whom is attended by numberless transformed Bodhisattvas; freely
changing their manifestations they fill up the worlds of the ten quarters; (the
appearance) can be compared with the color of the red lotus-flower.
wears a garland consisting of eight thousand rays, in which is seen fully
reflected a state of perfect beauty. The
palm of his hand has a mixed color of five hundred lotus-flowers. His hands have
ten tips of fingers, each tip has eighty-four thousand pictures, which are like
signet-marks, each picture has eighty-four thousand colors, each color has
eighty-four thousand rays which are soft and mild and shine over all things that
exist. With these jewel hands he draws and embraces all beings.
When he lifts up his feet, the soles of his feet are seen to be marked
with a wheel of a thousand spokes, which miraculously transform themselves into
five hundred million pillars of rays. When he puts his feet down to the ground,
the flowers of diamonds and jewels are scattered about, and all things are
simply covered by them. All the other signs of his body and the minor marks of
excellence are perfect, and not at all different from those of Buddha, except
the signs of having the turban on his head and the top of his head invisible,
which two signs of him are inferior to those of the World-Honored One -- such is
the perception of the real form and body of Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara, and it
is the Tenth Meditation.'
Buddha, especially addressing Ánanda, said: 'Whosoever wishes to meditate on
Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara must do so in the way I have explained. Those who
practice this meditation will not suffer any calamity; they will utterly remove
the obstacle that is raised by karma, and will expiate the sins, which would
involve them in births-and deaths for numberless kalpas. Even the hearing of the
name of this Bodhisattva will enable one to obtain immeasurable happiness. How
much more, then, will the diligent contemplation of him!
will meditate on Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara should first meditate on the turban
of his head and then on his heavenly crown.
the other signs should also be meditated on according to their order, and they
should be clear and distinct just as one sees the palms of one's hands.
you should meditate on Bodhisattva Mahasthama, whose :bodily signs, height and
size are equal to those of Avalokiteshvara; the circumference of his halo is one
hundred and twenty-five yojanas, and it shines as far as two hundred and fifty
yojanas. The rays of his whole body shine over the countries of the ten
quarters, they are purple gold in color, and can be seen by all beings that are
in favorable circumstances. If one
but sees the ray that issues from a single root of the hair of this Bodhisattva,
he will at the same time see the pure and excellent rays of all the innumerable
Buddhas of the ten quarters.
this reason this Bodhisattva is named the Unlimited Light; it is with this light
of wisdom that he shines over all beings and causes them to be removed from the
three paths of existence, and to obtain the highest power.
For the same reason this Bodhisattva is called the Bodhisattva of Great
Strength (Mahasthama). His heavenly
crown has five hundred jewel-flowers; each jewel-flower has five hundred
jewel-towers, in each tower are seen manifested all the pure and excellent
features of the far-stretching Buddha countries in the ten quarters.
The turban on his head is like a lotus-flower; on the top of the turban
there is a jewel pitcher, which is filled with various brilliant rays fully
manifesting the state of Buddha. All
his other bodily signs are quite equal to those of Avalokiteshvara.
When this Bodhisattva walks about, all the regions of the ten quarters
tremble and quake. Wherever the
earth quakes there appear five hundred million jewel-flowers; each jewel-flower
with its splendid dazzling beauty looks like the World of Highest Happiness (Sukhavati).
this Bodhisattva sits down, all the countries of seven jewels at once tremble
and quake: all the incarnate, divided Amitayuses - innumerable as the dust of
the earth - and all the incarnate Bodhisattvas - Avalokiteshvara and
Mahasthamaprapta - who dwell in the middlemost Buddha countries situated between
the Buddha country of the lower region presided over by Buddha "Golden
Light," and the country of the upper region presided over by Buddha
"King of Light" -- all these assemble in the World of Highest
Happiness (Sukhavati) like gathering clouds, sit on their thrones of
lotus-flowers which fill the whole sky, and preach the excellent Dharma in order
to deliver all the beings that are immersed in suffering -- such is the
perception of the form and body of Bodhisattva Mahasthamaprapta, and it is the
who practice this meditation are freed from the sins which would otherwise trap
them in births-and-deaths for innumerable asamkhya kalpas.
who have practiced this meditation do not live in an embryo state but obtain
free access to the excellent and admirable countries of Buddhas.
Those who have experienced this are said to have perfectly meditated upon
the two Bodhisattvas Avalokiteshvara and Mahasthamaprapta.
'After you have had this perception, you should imagine yourself to be born in
the World of Highest Happiness in the western quarter, and to be seated,
cross-legged, on a lotus-flower there. Then
imagine that the flower has shut you in and has afterwards unfolded; when the
flower has thus unfolded, five hundred colored rays will shine over your body,
your eyes will be opened so as to see the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas who fill the
whole sky; you will hear the sounds of waters and trees, the notes of birds, and
the voices of many Buddhas preaching the excellent Dharma, in accordance with
the twelve divisions of the scriptures. When
you have ceased from that meditation you must remember the experience ever
you have passed through this experience you are said to have seen the World of
Highest Happiness in the realm of the Buddha Amitayus -- this is the perception
obtained by a complete meditation on that Buddha country, and is called the
innumerable incarnate bodies of Amitayus, together with those of Avalokiteshvara
and Mahasthamaprapta, constantly come and appear before such devotees as above
Buddha then spoke to Ánanda and Vaidehi: 'Those who wish, by means of their
serene thoughts, to be born in the western land, should first meditate on an
image of the Buddha, who is sixteen cubits high, seated on a lotus-flower in the
water of the lake. As it was stated
before, the real body and its measurement are unlimited, incomprehensible to the
by the efficacy of the ancient prayer of that Tathágata, those who think of and
remember him shall certainly be able to accomplish their aim.
the mere perceiving of the image of that Buddha brings to one immeasurable
blessings. How much more, then,
will the meditating upon all the complete bodily signs of that Buddha!
Buddha Amitayus has supernatural power; since everything is at his
disposal, he freely transforms himself in the regions of the ten quarters. At
one time he shows himself as possessing a magnificent body, which fills the
whole sky, at another he makes his body appear small, the height being only
sixteen or eighteen cubits. The body he manifests is always pure gold in color;
his halo - bright with transformed Buddhas - and his jewel lotus-flowers are as
mentioned above. The bodies of the two Bodhisattvas are the same always.
beings can recognize either of the two Bodhisattvas by simply glancing at the
marks of their heads. These two Bodhisattvas assist Amitayus in his work of
universal salvation -- such is the meditation that forms a joint perception of
the Buddha and Bodhisattvas, and it is the Thirteenth Meditation.'
Buddha then spoke to Ánanda and Vaidehi: 'The beings who will be born in the
highest form of the highest grade (i. e. to Buddhahood) are those, whoever they
may be, who wish to be born in that country and cherish the threefold thought
whereby they are at once destined to be born there. What is the threefold
thought, you may ask. First, the True Thought; second, the Deep Believing
Thought; third, the Desire to be born in that Pure Land by bringing one's own
stock of merit to maturity. Those
who have this threefold thought in perfection shall most assuredly be born into
are also three classes of beings who are able to be born in that country. What,
you may ask, are the three classes of beings?
First, those who are possessed of a compassionate mind, who do no injury
to any beings, and accomplish all virtuous actions according to Buddha's
precepts; second, those who study and recite the Sutras of the Mahayana
doctrine, for instance, the Vaipulya Sutras; third, those who practice the six
fold remembrance. These three
classes of beings who wish to be born in that country by bringing (their
respective stocks of merit) to maturity, will become destined to be born there
if they have accomplished any of those meritorious deeds for one day or even for
one who has practiced (these merits) is about to be born in that country, Buddha
Amitayus, together with the two Bodhisattvas Avalokiteshvara and
Mahasthamaprapta, also numberless created Buddhas, and a hundred thousand
Bhikkhus and Sravakas, with their whole retinue, and innumerable gods, together
with the palaces of seven jewels, will appear before him out of regard for his
diligence and courage; Avalokiteshvara together with Mahasthamaprapta, will
offer a diamond seat to him; thereupon Amitayus himself will send forth
magnificent rays of light to shine over the dying person's body. He and many
Bodhisattvas will offer their hands and welcome him, when Avalokiteshvara,
Mahasthamaprapta, and all the other Bodhisattvas will praise the glory of the
man who practiced the meritorious deeds, and convey an exhortation to his mind.
When the new-comer, having seen these, rejoicing and leaping for joy, looks at
himself, he will find his own body seated on that diamond throne; and as he
follows behind Buddha he will be born into that country, in a moment When he has
been born there, he will see Buddha's form and body with every sign of
perfection complete, and also the perfect forms and signs of all the
Bodhisattvas; he will also see brilliant rays and jewel forests and hear them
propounding the excellent Dharma, and instantly be conscious of a spirit of
resignation to whatever consequences may hereafter arise. Before long he will
serve every one of the Buddhas who live in the regions of the ten quarters.
In the presence of each of those Buddhas he will obtain successively a
prophecy of his future destiny. On his return to his own land Sukhavati, in
which he has just been born he will obtain countless hundreds of thousand
Dharanis -- such are those who are to be born in the highest form of the highest
grade to Buddhahood.
'Next, the beings who will be born in the middle form of the highest grade are
those who do not necessarily learn, remember, study, or recite those Vaipulya
Sutras, but fully understand the meaning of the truth contained in them, and
having a firm grasp of the highest truth do not speak evil of the Mahayana
doctrine, but deeply believe in (the principle of) cause and effect; who by
bringing these good qualities to maturity seek to be born in that Country of
Highest Happiness. When one who has acquired these qualities is about to die,
Amitayus, surrounded by the two Bodhisattvas Avalokiteshvara and
Mahasthamaprapta, and an innumerable retinue of dependents, will bring a seat of
purple gold and approach him with words of praise, saying: "O my son in the
Dharma! You have practiced the
Mahayana doctrine; you have understood and believed the highest truth; therefore
I now come to meet and welcome you." He and the thousand created Buddhas
extend their hands all at once.
that man looks at his own body, he will find himself seated on that purple gold
seat; he will, then, stretching forth his folded hands, praise and eulogize all
the Buddhas. As quick as thought he
will be born in the lake of seven jewels of that country. That purple gold seat
on which he sits is like a magnificent jewel-flower, and will open after a
night; the new-comer's body becomes purple gold in color, and he will also find
under his feet a lotus-flower consisting of seven jewels. Buddha and the
Bodhisattvas at the same time will send forth-brilliant rays to shine over the
body of that person whose eyes will instantaneously be opened and become clear.
According to his former usage (in the human world) he will hear all the voices
that are there, preaching primary truths of the deepest significance.
he will descend from that golden seat and make obeisance to the Buddha with
folded hands, praising and eulogizing the World-Honored One.
After seven days, he will immediately attain to the state of the highest
perfect knowledge, anuttara-samyak-sambodhi, from which he will never fall away;
next he will fly to all the ten regions and successively serve all the Buddhas
therein; he will practice many a Samádhi in the presence of those Buddhas. After
the lapse of a lesser kalpa he will attain a spirit of resignation to whatever
consequences may hereafter arise, and he will also obtain a prophecy of his
future destiny in the presence of Buddhas.
'Next are those who are to be born in the lowest form of the highest grade: this
class of beings also believes in the principle of cause and effect, and without
slandering the Mahayana doctrine, simply cherishes the thought of obtaining the
highest Bodhi and by bringing this good quality to maturity seeks to be born in
that Country of Highest Happiness. When a devotee of this class dies, Amitayus, with
Avalokiteshvara, Mahasthamaprapta and all the dependents, will offer him a
golden lotus-flower; he will also miraculously create five hundred Buddhas in
order to send for and meet him. These five hundred created Buddhas will all at
once extend their hands and praise him, saying: "O my son in the Dharma!
you are pure now; as you have cherished the thought of obtaining the highest
Bodhi, we come to meet you." When he has seen them, he will find himself
seated on that golden lotus-flower. Soon the flower will close upon him;
following behind the World-Honored One he will go to be born in the lake of
seven jewels. After one day and one night the lotus-flower will unfold itself.
Within seven days he may see Buddha's body, though his mind is not as yet clear
enough to perceive all the signs and marks of the Buddha, which he will be able
to see clearly after three weeks; then he will hear many sounds and voices
preaching the excellent Dharma, and he himself, traveling through all the ten
quarters, will make obeisance to all the Buddhas, from whom he will learn the
deepest significance of the Dharma. After three lesser kalpas he will gain
entrance to the knowledge of a hundred divisions of nature and become settled in
the first joyful stage of Bodhisattva. The perception of these three classes of
beings is called the meditation upon the superior class of beings, and is the
'The beings who will be born in the highest form of the middle grade are those
who observe the five prohibitive precepts, the eight prohibitive precepts and
the fasting, and practice all the moral precepts; who do not commit the five
deadly sins, and who bring no blame or trouble upon any being; and who by
bringing these good qualities to maturity seek to be born in the World of
Highest Happiness in the western quarter. On the eve of such a person's
departure from this life, Amitayus, surrounded by Bhikkhus and dependents, will
appear before him, flashing forth rays of golden color, and will preach the
Dharma of suffering, non-existence, impermanence, and non-self.
He will also praise the virtue of homelessness that can liberate one from
all sufferings. At the sight of
Buddha, that believer will excessively rejoice in his heart; he will soon find
himself seated on a lotus-flower. Kneeling
down on the ground and stretching forth his folded hands he will pay homage to
Buddha. Before he raises his head
he will reach that Country of Highest Happiness and be born there. Soon the lotus-flower will unfold, when he will hear sounds
and voices praising and glorifying the Four Noble Truths of suffering.
He will immediately attain to the fruition of Arhat-ship, gain the
threefold knowledge and the six supernatural faculties, and complete the
'The beings who will be born in the middle form of the middle grade are those
who either observe the eight prohibitive precepts, and the fasting for one day
and one night, or observe the prohibitive precept for Shramaneras for the same
period, or observe the perfect moral precepts, not lowering their dignity nor
neglecting any ceremonial observance for one day and one night, and by bringing
their respective merits to maturity seek to be born in the Country of Highest
Happiness. On the eve of departure from this life, such a believer who is
possessed of this moral virtue, which he has made fragrant by cultivation during
his life, will see Amitayus, followed by all his retinue; flashing forth rays of
golden color, this Buddha will come before him and offer a lotus-flower of seven
will hear a voice in the sky, praising him and saying: "O son of a noble
family, you are indeed an excellent man. Out
of regard for your obedience to the teachings of all the Buddhas of the three
worlds, I now come and meet you.” Then
the newcomer will see himself seated on that lotus-flower.
Soon the lotus-flower will fold around him, and being in this he will be
born in the jewel-lake of the World of Highest Happiness in the western quarter.
seven days that flower will unfold again, when the believer will open his eyes,
and praise the World-Honored One, stretching forth his folded hands.
Having heard the Dharma, he will rejoice and obtain the fruition of an Srota-apanna.
the lapse of half a kalpa he will become an Arhat.
'Next are the beings who will be born in the lowest form of the middle grade to
Buddhahood. If there are sons or daughters of a noble family who are filial to
their parents and support them, besides exercising benevolence and compassion in
the world, at their departure from this life such persons will meet a good and
learned teacher who will fully describe to them the state of happiness in that
Buddha country of Amitayus, and will also explain the forty-eight prayers of the
Bhikkhu Dharmakara. As soon as any
such person has heard these details, his life will come to an end.
In a brief moment he will be born in the World of Highest Happiness in
the western quarter.
seven days he will meet Avalokiteshvara and Mahasthamaprapta, from whom he will
learn the Dharma and rejoice. After the lapse of a lesser kalpa he will attain
to the fruition of an Arhat. The perception of these three sorts of beings is
called the meditation of the middle class of beings, and is the Fifteenth
'Next are the beings who will be born in the highest form of the lowest grade.
If there be any one who commits many evil deeds, provided that he does not speak
evil of the Mahayana Sutras, he, though himself a very stupid man, and neither
ashamed nor sorry for all the evil actions that he has done, yet, while dying,
may meet a good and learned teacher who will recite and laud the headings and
titles of the twelve divisions of the Mahayana scriptures.
Having thus heard the names of all the Sutras, he will be freed from the
greatest sins, which would involve him in births and deaths during a thousand
wise man also will teach him to stretch forth his folded hands and to say,
"Adoration to Buddha Amitayus" ( Namo Amitabhaya Buddhaya, or Namu
Amida Butsu ). Having uttered the name of the Buddha, he will be freed from
the sins which would otherwise involve him in births and deaths for fifty
million kalpas. Thereupon the Buddha will send a created Buddha, and the created
Bodhisattvas Avalokiteshvara and Mahasthamaprapta, to approach that person with
words of praise, saying: "O son of a noble family, as you have uttered the
name of that Buddha, all your sins have, been destroyed and expiated, and
therefore we now come to meet you." After this speech the devotee will
observe the rays of that created Buddha flooding his chamber with light, and
while rejoicing at the sight he will depart this life. Seated on a lotus-flower
he will follow that created Buddha and go to be born in the jewel-lake.
the lapse of seven weeks, the lotus-flower will unfold, when the great
compassionate Bodhisattvas Avalokiteshvara and Mahasthamaprapta will stand
before him, flashing forth magnificent rays, and will preach to him the deepest
meaning of the twelve divisions of the scriptures. Having heard this, he will
understand and believe it, and cherish the thought of attaining the highest
Bodhi. In a period of ten lesser kalpas he will gain entrance to the knowledge
of the hundred divisions of nature and be able to enter upon the first joyful
stage of Bodhisattva. Those who have had an opportunity of hearing the name of
Buddha, the name of the Dharma, and the name of the Sangha - the names of the
Three jewels - can also be born in that country.'
Buddha continued: 'next are the beings that will be born in the middle form of
the lowest grade. If there is any
one who transgresses the five and the eight prohibitive precepts, and also all
the perfect moral precepts; he, being himself so stupid as to steal things that
belong to the whole community or things that belong to a particular Bhikkhu and
not be ashamed nor sorry for his impure preaching of the Dharma (in case of
preacher), but magnify and glorify himself with many wicked deeds - such a
sinful person deserves to fall into hell in consequence of those sins.
At the time of his death, when the fires of hell approach him from all
sides, he will meet a good and learned teacher who will, out of great
compassion, preach the power and virtue of the ten faculties of Amitayus and
fully explain the supernatural powers and brilliant rays of that Buddha; and
will further praise moral virtue, meditation, wisdom, emancipation, and the
thorough knowledge that follows emancipation. After having heard this, he will
be freed from his sins, which would involve him in births and deaths during
eighty million kalpas; thereupon those violent fires of hell will transform
themselves into a pure and cool wind blowing about heavenly flowers.
On each of these flowers will stand a created Buddha or Bodhisattva to
meet and receive that person. In a
moment he will be born in a lotus-flower growing in the lake of seven jewels. After six kalpas the lotus-flower will open, when
Avalokiteshvara and Mahasthama will soothe and encourage him with their
Brahma-voices, and preach to him the Mahayana Sutras of the deepest
heard this Dharma, he will instantaneously direct his thought toward the
attainment of the highest Bodhi.
'Finally, there are the beings who will be born in the lowest form of the lowest
grade. If there is any one who commits evil deeds, and even completes the ten
wicked actions, the five deadly sins and the like; that man, being himself
stupid and guilty of many crimes, deserves to fall into a miserable path of
existence and suffer endless pains during many kalpas. On the eve of death he
will meet a good and learned teacher who will, soothing and encouraging him in
various ways, preach to him the excellent Dharma and teach him the remembrance
of Buddha, but, being harassed by pains, he will have no time to think of
Buddha. Some good friend will then say to him: "Even if you cannot exercise
the remembrance of Buddha, you may, at least, utter the name, "Buddha
Amitayus." Let him do so serenely with his voice uninterrupted; let him be
(continually) thinking of Buddha until he has completed ten times the thought,
repeating the formula, "Adoration to Buddha Amitayus" (Namah Amitabha
Buddhayah, Namu Amida Butsu). On
the strength of his merit of uttering that Buddha's name he will, during every
repetition, expiate the sins which involved him in births and deaths during
eighty million kalpas. He will, while dying, see a golden lotus-flower like the
disk of the sun appearing before his eyes; in a moment he will be born in the
World of Highest Happiness. After
twelve greater kalpas the lotus-flower will unfold; thereupon the Bodhisattvas
Avalokiteshvara and Mahasthamaprapta, raising their voices in great compassion,
will preach to him in detail the real state of all the elements of nature and
the law of the expiation of sins. On hearing them he will rejoice and will
immediately direct his thought toward the attainment of the Bodhi -- such are
the beings who are to be born in the lowest form of the lowest grade to
Buddhahood. The perception of the above three is called the meditation of the
inferior class of beings, and is the Sixteenth Meditation.'
When Buddha had finished this speech, Vaidehi, together with her five hundred
female attendants, could see, as guided by the Buddha's words, the scene of the
far-stretching World of the Highest Happiness, and could also see the body of
Buddha and the bodies of the two Bodhisattvas.
With her mind filled with joy she praised them, saying: 'Never have I
seen such a wonder!’ Instantaneously
she became wholly and fully enlightened, and attained a spirit of resignation,
prepared to endure whatever consequences might yet arise.
Her five hundred female attendants too cherished the thought of obtaining
the highest perfect knowledge, and sought to be born in that Buddha country.
The World-Honored One predicted that they would all be born in that Buddha
country and be able to obtain the Samádhi (the supernatural calm) of the
presence of many Buddhas. All the innumerable Devas (gods) also directed their
thought toward the attainment of the highest Bodhi.
rose from his seat, approached Buddha, and spoke thus: 'World-Honored
One, what should we call this Sutra? And how should we receive and remember it
in the future?'
said in his reply to Ánanda: 'Ánanda, this Sutra should be called 'The
Meditation on the Land of Sukhavati, on Buddha Amitayus, Bodhisattva
Avalokiteshvara, Bodhisattva Mahasthamaprapta,' or otherwise be called 'The
Sutra on the entire removal of the obstacle of Karma, the means of being born in
the realm of the Buddhas.' You should take and hold it, not forgetting nor
losing it. Those who practice the Samádhi in accordance with this Sutra will be
able to see, in the present life, Buddha Amitayus and the two great
case of a son or a daughter of a noble family, the mere hearing of the names of
the Buddha and the two Bodhisattvas will expiate the sins which would involve
them in births and deaths during innumerable kalpas. How much more will the
remembrance of that Buddha and the Bodhisattvas!
that the one who remembers that Buddha is the White Lotus among people, whom the
Bodhisattvas Avalokiteshvara and Mahasthama consider an excellent friend. Such a
person will, sitting in the Bodhi-Mandala, be born in the abode of Buddhas.'
Buddha further spoke to Ánanda: 'you should carefully remember these words.
To remember these words is to remember the name of Buddha Amitayus.’
When Buddha concluded these words, the worthy disciples Maha Maudgalyayana, and
Ánanda, Vaidehi and the others were all enraptured with
Thereupon the World-Honored One came back, walking through the open sky to
Vulture Peak. Ánanda soon after spoke before a great assembly of all the
occurrences as stated above. On hearing this, all the innumerable Devas, Nagas
and Yakshas were inspired with great joy; and having made obeisance to the
Buddha they went their way.
ends the Sutra of the Meditation on Buddha Amitayus, spoken by Buddha